Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation
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This is a paper written by Norbert E. Fuchs, Kaarel Kaljurand, and Tobias Kuhn. It was presented at the Reasoning Web Summer School 2008. It describes Attempto Controlled English and its applications.
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a precisely defined subset of English that can automatically and unambiguously be translated into first-order logic. ACE may seem to be completely natural, but is actually a formal language, concretely it is a first-order logic language with an English syntax. Thus ACE is human and machine understandable. ACE was originally intended to specify software, but has since been used as a general knowledge representation language in several application domains, most recently for the semantic web. ACE is supported by a number of tools, predominantly by the Attempto Parsing Engine (APE) that translates ACE texts into Discourse Representation Structures (DRS), a variant of first-order logic. Other tools include the Attempto Reasoner RACE, the AceRules system, the ACE View plug-in for the Protégé ontology editor, AceWiki, and the OWL verbaliser.