Semantic Web standards
This page provides an overview of official specifications of Semantic Web technologies and methods. Semantic technologies strongly require standardised formats to enable information exchange across application boundaries. Ontology languages and (quasi-)standard metadata formats are listed on the ontologies and vocabularies page.
 Core Specifications
RDF is a method for expressing knowledge in a decentralized world, and it is the foundation of the Semantic Web. RDF isn't strictly an XML format, although an XML syntax is a part of the standard.
OWL, the Ontology Web Language (OWL), is a language to extend the expressibility that RDF provides. OWL adds an additional layer of semantics on top of RDF.
 RDF Encoding and Extraction
RDF/XML is the XML syntax for RDF standardized in the RDF specifications. It is the most widely implemented syntax for RDF, though it is widely regarded as obscuring the principles behind RDF.
Notation 3 (N3) is the de facto plain-text syntax for RDF and is regarded as the most transparent RDF syntax. It has several standardized simplified forms, such as Turtle and N-Triples.
RDFa is a set of extensions to XHTML being proposed by W3C that allows RDF to be encoded within an XHTML page. RDFa uses attributes from XHTML's meta and link elements, and generalises them so that they are usable on all elements. This allows you to annotate XHTML markup with semantics.
GRDDL is a markup format for Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages; that is, for getting RDF data out of XML documents using explicitly associated transformation algorithms, typically represented in XSLT. It is currently undergoing standardization in the W3C.
 Inference and Querying
SPARQL is a query language for RDF data based very loosely on SQL.
 All Specifications
The following Semantic Web related standards are currently described by pages on this site:
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 Call for contributions
The information on the above standards is pretty meager at the moment, and basically all articles need extension. It would also be useful to describe the standardising time and organisation for each case, maybe in a semantic template. If you are knowledgeable about these topics, please contribute.